Product Number: MEDTR15
List Price: $295.00
Classification: Radiation Safety
Length of Video(in Minutes): 33
Release Date: December 11th, 2006
Publisher: Black Mountain Safety & Health, Inc.
Description: Most people have an opinion about exposure to radiation. Their opinion may be based on incorrect information which may lead to an overly casual attitude towards radiation or to an unreasonable fear of radiation. It is the objective of this video to present accurate information about the risks of medical radiation so that the medical community will be able to more accurately assess the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation in comparison to the risks.
• This program is about radiation, specifically ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation includes such things as X-Rays, gamma rays, alpha particles and beta particles
• Radiation produces ion pairs in the body which can produce free radicals that may attack the DNA in cells.
• Damage to DNA may be beneficial (rarely) or neutral or harmful.
• Radiation is a weak carcinogen. Radiation can produce cancer but it does so at a very low rate. One reason is that there are repair mechanisms that can repair damaged DNA
• Not all cells are equally vulnerable to radiation. Types of cells that are most vulnerable to radiation damage include cells with a high oxygen content, those that are dividing rapidly and cells that are specialized
• X-rays are produced by heating a filament and the electrons that are boiled off are accelerated in an electrical field, where they hit a target with the production of X-rays
• X-rays are produced with varying energies with those having low energy being less desirable because they are absorbed by tissue without producing any useful information
• Filtration can be used to screen out the low energy x-rays
• Radiation Exposure - The effect of radiation is proportional to dose
o 1 REM - Some chromosome damage
o 25 REM - Drop in red and white blood cell counts
o 100 REM - Low grade radiation sickness, weakness, nausea
o 400 REM - Fatal to 50 percent of population
o 1000 REM - Fatal to 100 percent of population
• Chronic Radiation Exposure - Various models have been proposed to correlate radiation dose with effects - These include the threshold model, the Linear No-Threshold Model and the Hormesis Model
• The long term effects of radiation dose less than 10 REM is highly uncertain and calculating the probability of such effects is not recommended
• Various medical procedures produce varying doses to the body, with X-rays usually giving the least dose and fluoroscopy usually giving the greatest dose of the diagnostic radiation procedures
• During the last 100 years, the use of radiation for diagnostic purposes has greatly increased while the overall cancer incidence has gone down. This suggests that medical radiation has not produced a increase in cancer
• Conclusion - Radiation can cause cancer but radiation is a weak carcinogen and medical radiation, in most cases, produces only a small increase in the risk of cancer thus justifying the use of radiation if some significant benefit can be obtained by the medical use of radiation. Medical procedures involving fluoroscopy can produce significant doses and special care should be taken to minimize dose with these procedures.